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PWB Vs. PCB: What Are the Manufacturing Process Differences?
Thursday, July 4th, 2024

In our daily life, electronic devices are existing everywhere. And there are many people know the “PCB” nowadays, while very less people know the “PWB”. Unless you’ve been in the PCB business for more than 20 years.

Actually, PWB is another term of circuit board, and it was used commonly before the year 1999. But with the development of electronics, it was replaced by PCB gradually. You want to know more about it? In this article, we will answer it for you. Deeply explain their definitions, manufacturing process, applications and the key differences between PCB and PWB.

PWB Vs. PCB: What Are the Manufacturing Process Differences?

What is A Printed Circuit Board (PCB)?

A Printed Circuit Board is a fundamental component in modern electronics, providing the physical and electrical connections for various electronic components. It consists of multiple compositions, including a non-conductive substrate, conductive pathways, and insulating layers, which facilitate the complex circuitry required in contemporary devices. A PCB can be made into single sided PCB, double sided PCB and multilayer PCB.

PCBs are integral to the functionality of a wide range of electronic products, from consumer gadgets like smartphones and computers to industrial machinery, medical devices, and aerospace systems. The advanced design and manufacturing processes involved in PCB production ensure high reliability and performance, making them essential in virtually all electronic applications.

PWB Vs. PCB: What Are the Manufacturing Process Differences?

Basic manufacturing process of PCB

Design and Layout

PCBs are designed using sophisticated computer-aided design (CAD) software. Designers create detailed layouts, specifying the placement of components, conductive pathways, and vias (interlayer connections). The design is converted into Gerber files, a standard format for PCB fabrication that contains all the necessary information for manufacturing. These files are essential for ensuring precision and accuracy during the manufacturing process.

Material Preparation

The substrate, typically FR4 (fiberglass epoxy laminate), is prepared. FR4 is known for its excellent mechanical strength and thermal stability, making it an ideal base material for PCBs. Copper sheets are laminated onto the substrate, which will form the conductive pathways after the etching process. This preparation stage is crucial for creating a reliable foundation for the PCB.

Printing the Circuit Pattern

A photoresist, a light-sensitive material, is applied to the copper-clad substrate. The board is exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light through a mask that defines the circuit pattern. The UV light hardens the photoresist in the exposed areas. The board is then developed in a chemical solution that removes the unexposed photoresist, revealing the copper to be etched away. This step accurately transfers the circuit design onto the board.

Etching

The board is immersed in an etching solution, commonly ferric chloride or ammonium persulfate, which removes the unprotected copper, leaving only the desired circuit pattern. This etching process is crucial for defining the conductive pathways on the PCB, ensuring that the correct connections are made according to the design specifications.

Drilling

Precision drilling machines are used to create holes for through-hole components and vias. These holes are then cleaned to remove any debris that could affect electrical connectivity. Drilling is a critical step in the PCB manufacturing process as it ensures proper placement and connection of components across different layers of the board.

Plating

The drilled holes are plated with copper to create electrical connections between the layers, which is especially important for multilayer PCBs. Additional layers of plating, such as nickel or gold, may be applied to improve conductivity and protect against oxidation. This plating process enhances the durability and performance of the PCB.

Solder Mask Applying

A solder mask is applied to protect the copper traces from oxidation and prevent solder bridges between closely spaced solder pads. The solder mask is exposed to UV light and then developed to reveal the solder pads. This layer not only protects the PCB but also improves its appearance and reliability.

Silkscreen Printing

A silkscreen layer is printed on the board to add text, component labels, and other identifiers. This layer helps in the identification and assembly of components, making it easier for technicians to work with the PCB during the manufacturing and repair processes.

Surface Finishing

Generally, a layer of surface finishing is coated on the PCB to protect its surface, it also called surface treatment. The common surface treatments are HASL-LF, ENIG, ENEPIG, OSP, Immersion Silver/Tin. Of course, different treatment offers different function, like OSP is to protect surface from oxidation, HASL-LF provides a good solderability, ENEPIG make sure the chemistry corrosion. Choose a suitable one according to your specific demands.

Assembly and Testing

Components are placed on the board using automated pick-and-place machines, and soldered using techniques like reflow soldering for surface-mount devices (SMD) and wave soldering for through-hole components. The finished PCB undergoes various tests, such as automated optical inspection (AOI), electrical testing, and functional testing, to ensure quality and performance. Want see the whole manufacturing process of a multilayer PCB, click here: Manufacturing Process of Multi-layer PCB.

PWB Vs. PCB: What Are the Manufacturing Process Differences?

What is the definition of Printed Wiring Board (PWB)?

A Printed Wiring Board is a term historically used to describe a type of circuit board that focuses primarily on the layout and wiring of electronic connections rather than the overall circuit functionality. PWBs emphasize the physical arrangement of conductive paths to connect various components but do not necessarily include all the integrated features found in modern PCBs.

PWB Vs. PCB: What Are the Manufacturing Process Differences?

This term was more prevalent during the earlier stages of electronic development, where the primary concern was establishing reliable electrical connections. As technology advanced, the term PCB became more common, reflecting the expanded capabilities and comprehensive role of these boards in forming complete electronic circuits. Despite being less common today, understanding the term PWB is crucial for historical context and certain niche applications.

How to Manufacture A Printed Wiring Board (PWB)?

Design and Layout

PWBs typically have simpler designs focused on wiring patterns rather than complex circuitry. In some cases, the layout may be done manually or using basic design software.

Material Preparation

Simpler substrates such as phenolic or epoxy resins may be used for PWBs. Copper sheets are laminated onto the substrate to form the conductive pathways. These materials are cost-effective and suitable for applications where advanced performance characteristics are not required.

Printing the Wiring Pattern

Similar to PCBs, a photoresist is applied to the copper-clad substrate. The board is then exposed to UV light through a mask and developed to reveal the copper to be etched away. This process creates the wiring pattern necessary for connecting electronic components.

Etching

The board is immersed in an etching solution to create the wiring pattern. This step is straightforward compared to the more intricate etching processes used in PCB manufacturing, reflecting the simpler requirements of PWBs.

Drilling

Holes for through-hole components are drilled, but the process may not require the precision needed for complex PCBs. This basic drilling process is adequate for the less demanding applications of PWBs.

Plating (if necessary)

Plating is done to ensure electrical connectivity but may not involve advanced techniques like those used for multilayer PCBs. It suffices for the simpler construction of PWBs.

Solder Mask Application

A basic solder mask may be applied to protect the wiring pattern. This layer provides sufficient protection for the relatively simple designs of PWBs, preventing short circuits and oxidation.

Silkscreen Printing

A simple silkscreen layer may be added for component identification. This helps in the assembly process but does not require the detailed labeling often necessary for PCBs.

Assembly and Testing

Components are manually or semi-automatically placed on PWBs and soldered using standard techniques. Basic electrical testing is conducted to ensure functionality. This simpler assembly and testing process aligns with the less complex nature of PWBs.

pcb assembly

Which Kind of Materials used in PCB and PWB?

Substrate Materials

FR4 (fiberglass epoxy laminate) is the most common substrate material for PCBs due to its excellent mechanical strength and thermal stability. Phenolic resin, used in PWBs for simpler applications, is less durable and has lower thermal stability compared to FR4, but it is cost-effective and suitable for basic electronic devices. Polyimide is used for flexible PCBs due to its high flexibility and thermal resistance, making it ideal for applications requiring bending and flexing, such as wearable electronics and flexible displays.

Conductive Materials

Copper is the primary conductive material for both PCBs and PWBs. It is used to create the conductive pathways and pads, providing excellent electrical conductivity and reliability. Gold, nickel, and silver are used for plating to enhance conductivity and protect against oxidation, primarily in PCBs. These materials improve the durability and performance of the PCB by providing a reliable contact surface for soldering and component connections.

Insulating Materials

Prepreg, a fiberglass cloth impregnated with resin, is used in multilayer PCBs to bond the layers together. Prepreg provides mechanical strength and electrical insulation between the layers. Dielectric materials are used between layers in multilayer PCBs to provide electrical insulation, maintaining signal integrity and preventing short circuits.

Solder Mask Materials

Liquid Photo Imageable (LPI) solder mask is the most common type used in PCBs, providing excellent protection and durability. LPI solder masks are applied using a photolithographic process, ensuring precise coverage and protection. Dry film solder mask is used for simpler applications and PWBs. This type of solder mask is less expensive and easier to apply but may not offer the same level of protection as LPI solder masks.

Key differences between PCB and PWB

FeaturePCB (Printed Circuit Board)PWB (Printed Wiring Board)
Design and LayoutDesigned using sophisticated CAD tools for complex circuitry, including detailed simulation and optimization.Simpler designs focused on wiring patterns, often done manually or with basic software.
Layer CountCan have multiple layers (e.g., double-sided, multilayer) to support intricate circuit designs.Generally single or double-sided, less commonly multilayer.
Component TypesSupports surface-mount technology (SMT) and through-hole technology (THT) components.Primarily supports through-hole technology (THT) components.
Signal IntegrityDesigned to maintain high signal integrity, minimizing electrical noise and interference.Basic signal integrity management, sufficient for simple applications.
Flexibility and RigidityIncludes both rigid and flexible PCBs, allowing for a wide range of applications.Typically rigid, not commonly used in flexible applications.
Terminology and UsageUniversally used in the industry to refer to boards that integrate all necessary components to form complete circuits. Also called “bare board”.Universally used in the industry to refer to boards that integrate all necessary components to form complete circuits.
Industry StandardsRecognized by standards organizations like IPC, IEC, and ANSI with specific performance and quality criteria.Covered under broader standards but with fewer specific guidelines due to limited modern use.
Cost and EfficiencyHigher cost due to advanced materials and processes, offering superior performance and reliability.More cost-effective for simple applications, but with limited performance and reliability.
ApplicationsUsed in consumer electronics, industrial equipment, medical devices, aerospace, and defense.Historically used in simpler electronic devices and early computers, still relevant in niche applications.
(Summary Differences: PCB VS PWB)

Other Terms Related to PWB and PCB

Based on the PCB and PWB, you may still hear about CCA, PCA, PWA during the PCB working. These terms are also related to printed circuit board. Here is a detailed explanation of each:

Printed Wiring Assembly (PWA)

PWA is the abbreviation for printed wiring assembly. This is an archaic term that was once used to describe what we now refer to as PCB assembly or PCBA. Although it is less common today, understanding this term is useful for historical context and when dealing with older documentation.

Circuit Card Assembly (CCA)

CCA stands for circuit card assembly. It is essentially the same thing as PCBA, where the PCB is assembled with all necessary components to create a functional unit. CCA is a less frequently used term compared to PCBA but is still recognized in certain industries and contexts.

Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA)

PCBA is the abbreviation for printed circuit board assembly. When the PCB is assembled with all its electronic components by SMT technology, it is called PCBA or PCB assembly. Since a change in terminology in 1999, PCBA has become the standard term used for all assembled circuit boards. From users to technical committees, PCBA is the preferred term for referring to assembled boards. The assembly process involves placing and soldering components onto the PCB, making it a functional electronic circuit.

Printed Circuit Assembly (PCA)

PCA stands for printed circuit assembly, which is another term for PCBA. Like CCA, PCA is not commonly used in modern terminology but refers to the same concept of an assembled printed circuit board.

aging test of PWB boards

In a word, whatever for PWB, PCB, or circuit cards, they are refer to bare printed circuit boards (bare boards). While PCA, CCA, PWA, and PCBA refer to assembled circuit boards. Among these terms, PCB and PCBA are the most widely used in both industry and technical documentation.

This is the end of this introduction of PWB and PCB, welcome to contact us if you want more about PCB knowledge.

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High Speed PCB: How to Design It?
Wednesday, July 3rd, 2024

In today’s tech-driven world, creating efficient high speed PCB (Printed Circuit Board) is critical for ensuring devices can handle rapid data transfer without issues. These high speed PCBs are popular in the wireless devices which needs high signal transfer. Crafting high-speed circuits requires careful planning and precise execution to maintain signal quality and overall performance. In this blog, we introduced the basics of high-speed PCB design, offering practical tips and insights into the best materials and techniques for high-frequency applications.

What is a High Speed Circuit PCB?

High-speed PCB is a circuit board that can support signal transmission. High-speed signals usually refer to signals with frequencies higher than 50MHz, such as high-speed digital signals, high-speed analog signals, etc. These fast transitions can introduce challenges like signal reflections, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and crosstalk, which can disrupt performance if not properly managed.

Additionally, these signals will be affected by board materials, layout, wiring and other factors during transmission. Therefore, a specially designed circuit board is required to ensure the integrity and reliability of the signal. Here is a 4 layers high speed PCB for Iradar device with 50ohm single-ended impedance control.

high speed pcb for Iradar

Features of High-Speed PCB

  • High frequency
  • Low permittivity and low loss factor
  • Multilayer design
  • Strict impedance control
  • High-precision manufacturing
  • Low noise characteristic
  • High density circuit layout (micro-vias)
  • High performance

What is Considered High-Speed PCB Design?

High-speed PCB design focuses on managing the complexities that come with high-frequency signals and fast switching. Key considerations include:

– Signal Integrity: Ensuring signals travel without distortion or loss.

– Power Management: Distributing power effectively to minimize noise and voltage drops.

– Heat Handling: Managing heat from high-speed components to prevent overheating.

– Impedance Matching: Keeping impedance consistent to reduce signal reflections and loss.

– Differential Pair Routing: Reducing EMI and crosstalk by routing complementary signal pairs together.

This type of high speed pcb design requires a solid understanding of electromagnetic principles, advanced simulation tools, and precise manufacturing techniques. For those new to high-speed PCB design, Best Technology offers expert guidance and solutions.

What’s the Best Material for High-Speed PCB Design?

Choosing the right material for high speed pcb is vital for maintaining signal integrity and achieving optimal performance. The material impacts the board’s dielectric constant (Dk), loss tangent, and overall signal quality. Common materials include:

– FR4: Widely used but not ideal for very high frequencies due to higher loss tangent.

– Rogers (RO4000 series): Preferred for high-speed designs thanks to its low dielectric constant and loss tangent.

– Teflon: Excellent for high-frequency applications but more expensive and harder to process.

Selecting the appropriate material ensures the PCB can handle high-speed signals without compromising performance.

Where is the High-Speed PCB Commonly Used in?

High-speed circuit boards are widely used in signal transmission applications, the typical fields are including:

1. Communication equipment – such as 5G base stations, optical fiber communication equipment, etc.

    2. Data center – like high-performance computing, storage servers, etc.

    3. Consumer electronics in our daily life – high-end smartphones, tablets, gaming devices, etc.

    4. Aerospace and military – high speed are always used in high-end devices. For example, radar, navigation systems and other equipment with high reliability requirements.

    What is the 3H Rule in High Speed PCB Design?

    The 3H rule is a guideline suggesting that signal traces should be spaced at least three times the height of the dielectric (3H) between the signal layer and the adjacent ground or reference layer. This helps minimize crosstalk and maintain signal integrity, particularly for high-speed digital signals with rise times of 1 ns or less. Key aspects include:

    – Trace Spacing: Keeping traces apart by at least 3H reduces electromagnetic coupling and interference.

    – Signal Integrity: Adequate spacing helps maintain clear signals in high-speed circuits.

    – Effectiveness: This rule is especially beneficial for fast digital signals, reducing the risk of crosstalk and interference.

    For instance, if the dielectric height between the signal layer and the reference layer is 0.2 mm, traces should be at least 0.6 mm apart to follow the 3H rule.

    How to Design a High-Speed Board?

    Designing a high-speed PCB involves several strategies to ensure effective signal transmission, power distribution, and minimal EMI. Here’s a step-by-step approach:

    Component Placement and Layer Stack-Up

    Place high-speed components to minimize signal paths and interference. Group related components to simplify routing. In addition, create a layer stack-up that supports controlled impedance and reduces signal loss. Use ground planes between layers for a return path for high-frequency currents.

    Trace Routing and Impedance Control

    Keep high-speed traces short and direct, avoiding right-angle bends. Use microstrip or stripline configurations for controlled impedance and minimal noise. For impedance control, calculate and ensure consistent impedance for traces. Use differential pair routing for high-speed signals to reduce EMI and crosstalk.

    High Speed PCB: How to Design It?

    Power Distribution and EMI Mitigation

    Use decoupling capacitors near high-speed components to filter noise and stabilize the power supply. Design a robust power distribution network to minimize impedance and ensure stable voltage. And employ proper grounding and shielding techniques. Route high-speed signals on inner layers between ground planes to reduce EMI and provide a consistent return path.

    Simulation and Testing

    Use signal integrity analysis tools like SI or PI to simulate the PCB layout, predicting signal behavior and identifying potential issues. Analyze aspects like eye diagrams to assess signal quality.

    High-speed PCB design is a complex but rewarding endeavor that ensures your electronics perform efficiently in high-frequency environments. By understanding the fundamentals and applying the right techniques and materials, you can create robust, high-speed boards. Best Technology is here to assist you with expert advice and solutions for your high-speed PCB needs.

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    What Are the Differences Between Active and Passive Components?
    Wednesday, July 3rd, 2024

    In PCB electronics, components are classified into two main categories: active and passive components. Understanding these differences is crucial for anyone working with electronic circuits. Active components control electricity flow and require an external power source. Passive components do not control electricity and do not need an external power source.

    What are active and passive components meaning?

    Active and passive components, simply say, the device that needs an energy (electrical) source is called an active device, and the device that does not need an energy source is a passive device. Active components, such as transistors and diodes, require external power to function. They can control the flow of electricity. Passive components, like resistors and capacitors, do not need external power. They cannot control electrical flow but can store, resist, or filter energy. Both passive and active components are common useful in PCB assembly and SMT technology.

    Active components play a dynamic role in circuits. They can amplify signals, switch currents, and perform various complex functions. These components rely on an external power source to operate and influence the behavior of the circuit. For instance, a transistor can amplify a weak signal, making it stronger and more useful for further processing.

    What Are the Differences Between Active and Passive Components?

    Passive components, on the other hand, are more static in nature. They cannot amplify signals or control current flow but are essential for other functions like energy storage and signal filtering. Resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers are common examples. Each of these components has a specific role in maintaining the stability and functionality of an electronic circuit.

    What are the key differences between active and passive components?

    The main difference between active and passive components is their ability to control electricity. Active components can amplify signals and perform complex tasks. Passive components can only store, resist, or filter energy. They cannot amplify signals or control current.

    Active components are energy-dependent. They require an external source of power to function and can influence the flow of electricity within the circuit. For example, an integrated circuit (IC) can perform multiple functions like amplification, switching, and signal modulation, all of which require external power.

    Passive components, in contrast, do not require an external power source. They can only perform their functions passively. For instance, a resistor can limit the current flowing through a circuit without needing additional power. Similarly, a capacitor can store electrical energy and release it when needed, all without external energy input.

    Common active components in electronics

    Active devices are the main components of electronic circuits. From the physical structure, circuit function and engineering parameters, active devices can be divided into discrete devices and integrated circuits.

    1. Discrete devices

    • Bipolar transistor, generally referred to as transistor or BJT
    • Field effective transistor
    • Thyristor
    • Semiconductor resistors and capacitors – resistors and capacitors manufactured by integrated technology are used in integrated circuits.

    2. Integrated circuit

    Integrated circuit can be divided into analog IC and digital IC. Analog integrated circuits mainly deal with continuous analog signals, such as sound, light, temperature, etc., and retain the continuity and accuracy of the signal through amplification, filtering, mixing and other operations. In contrast, digital integrated circuits are used to process discrete time digital signals, convert the signal into binary digital form, and then perform logical operations and processing.

    Basic analog integrated circuit devices generally include:

    • Integrated operational amplifier (operation amplifier)
    • Comparator
    • Logarithmic and exponential amplifiers
    • Multiplier/divider
    • Analog switching circuit (analog switch)
    • Phase lock loop
    • Integrated voltage regulator
    • Reference source
    • Wave-form generator
    • Power amplifier

    Digital integrated circuit including:

    • Logic gate circuit
    • Flip-flop
    • Register
    • Decoder
    • Data comparator
    • Driver
    • Counter
    • Shaping circuit
    • Programmable Logic Device (PLD)
    • Microprocessor (MPU)
    • Microcontroller (MCU)
    • Digital signal processor (DSP)

    Common passive components in electronics

    Passive devices in electronic systems can be divided into circuit components and connection components according to the circuit functions they play. These components are essential for functions like energy storage, filtering, and impedance matching in electronic circuits. The common passive components are including:

    Circuit components

    1. Diode
    2. Resistor
    3. Resistor network
    4. Capacitor
    5. Inductor
    6. Transformer
    7. Relay
    8. Key
    9. Speaker
    10. Switch

    Connection components

    • Connector
    • Socket
    • Cable
    • PCB (printed circuit board)

    Why are active components crucial in modern electronics?

    The ability of active components to control and manipulate electrical signals makes them indispensable in a wide range of applications.

    In computers, for example, active components such as processors and memory chips perform complex calculations and store large amounts of data. In communication systems, active components amplify weak signals, making long-distance transmission possible. Without these amplifiers, the signal would decay with distance, leading to a decline in communication quality. Power electronics, another key area of modern development, relies heavily on active components. Devices like power converters, inverters, and motor controllers use transistors and integrated circuits to efficiently convert and control electrical energy. This efficiency is crucial for applications ranging from renewable energy systems to electric vehicles.

    It’s fair to say that without active components, devices like computers, smartphones, and TVS wouldn’t function the way they do today, and our era of big data wouldn’t be moving as fast as it is today.

    How do passive components complement active components?

    Both active and passive components are indispensable in a circuit. They depend on each other and complement each other. Without active components, the circuit cannot be activated or perform a specific work. Without passive components, the circuit cannot be controlled and adjusted, nor can it achieve a stable operating state. Such a relationship between the two is like the relationship between the “dynamic” and the “static” of a circuit.

    What Are the Differences Between Active and Passive Components?

    For example, in an audio amplifier circuit, the power supply and amplifier are the active components, and the load and resistance are the passive components. The power supply provides energy, the amplifier amplifies the signal, and controls and limits it through load and resistance, and finally realizes the amplification and regulation of the audio signal. In signal processing, inductors filter out high-frequency noise and protect sensitive active components from interference. Transformers, on the other hand, enable efficient power transfer between different parts of the circuit, allowing active components to operate within their optimal voltage range.

    Comparing the Energy Requirements of Active and Passive Elements

    Active components need an external power source to function. They consume energy during operation. Passive components do not need external power and generally do not consume energy, except for minor resistive losses. This difference impacts the design and efficiency of electronic circuits.

    Active components, such as transistors and integrated circuits, rely on external power to operate. This power requirement means that active components consume energy during their operation. The amount of energy consumed depends on the specific component and its application. For instance, a power amplifier consumes more energy than a simple transistor switch.

    Passive components, in contrast, do not need external power to function. They operate solely based on the electrical energy present in the circuit. Resistors, capacitors, and inductors do not consume significant energy, except for minor resistive losses in resistors. This low energy requirement makes passive components more efficient in certain applications.

    What Are the Differences Between Active and Passive Components?

    The difference in energy requirements between active and passive components impacts the overall efficiency of electronic circuits. Designers must carefully balance the use of active and passive components to achieve optimal performance and energy efficiency. For example, using passive filters instead of active ones can save energy in low-power applications.

    Active and Passive Component Images and Symbols

    Recognizing symbols are essential for reading and designing circuit diagrams. They provide a visual representation of the components and their functions, helping designers understand the overall structure and operation of the circuit. Recognizing these symbols is a fundamental skill for anyone involved in electronics. Here is a detailed images and symbols listing of common active and passive components.

    Above all is the introduction to passive and active components, hope it is useful for every engineers. Best Technology is a professional PCB and PCBA manufacturer in Asia. We have our own factory in China and Vetnam. Welcome to contact us if you have any questions about components and PCB assembly.

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    Your Reliable LED PCB Board Manufacturer – Best Technology
    Thursday, June 27th, 2024

    Nowadays, LED lighting has become increasingly popular in our daily life. With its rapidly rise in popularity, the term LED PCB has become commonplace. LED PCB also referred to as LED circuit board, LED aluminum PCB, or simply LED PCB board. Today, our team will share some informational knowledges about LED PCB circuit board, let’s keep reading if you are interested!

    What is a LED PCB Circuit Board?

    A LED PCB circuit board is a unique type of board crafted to hold and connect light-emitting diodes (LEDs). They are specially designed for lighting applications, like LED car headlights, pool lighting, UV LED, hotel lighting, grow light, high bay lights, stair lights, supermarket lighting, street light, etc. They are used almost everywhere. These boards provide the support and connections needed for LEDs to function efficiently and last longer. They are crucial in areas like lighting, automotive, and electronics, thanks to their ability to manage heat effectively and enhance the lifespan of LEDs.

    What are the Different Types of LED PCB?

    LED PCB boards are preferred over traditional lighting methods like fluorescent and incandescent bulbs. There are in total five types of LED PCBs, each designed for specific applications:

    • Aluminum based LED PCB

    An LED PCB board, often made of aluminum alloy, serve as the base for mounting LEDs. This is the most common type of LED PCB, since it has good thermal management and cost-effective compared to other materials. The thermal conductivity of aluminum can be 1.0-3.0W/m.k, it can meet the almost heat requirements of low-middle power applications, like streetlights and floodlights. Additionally, Best Technology developed a new product called semi-flexible aluminum PCB for specific device. It can be bent and folded when necessary.

    • Copper core LED PCB

    Copper core LED circuit board can be divided into two types: normal copper core LED PCB and thermoelectric separation copper-based LED PCB. The copper material has higher thermal conductivity than that of aluminum, and it can up to 400W/m.k when made by thermoelectric separation technology. Copper based LED PCB board commonly used in high power devices like new energy vehicles.

    • Ceramic LED PCB

    Ceramic LED PCB boards are made from ceramic substrates like aluminum oxide (Al2O3) or aluminum nitride (AlN). They have superior thermal management, and it can withstand extreme environment when used in high-temp and low temperatures. Ceramic substrates can handle high power and thermal cycling better than other materials, making them ideal for automotive, aerospace, and high-power LED applications.

    • FR4 LED PCB

    FR4 LED PCB boards are made from woven fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin binder, which provides good mechanical strength and insulation properties. FR4 is a widely used material for general-purpose PCBs due to its cost-effectiveness and versatility. While it has lower thermal conductivity (around 0.3W/m.k) compared to aluminum or copper, FR4 LED PCBs are suitable for low to medium power applications where thermal management is less critical. These PCBs are commonly used in consumer electronics, LED displays, and indoor lighting.

    • Flexible LED PCB

    Flexible LED PCB boards are constructed using flexible plastic substrates like polyimide or polyester. This flexibility allows the PCBs to be bent, folded, and shaped to fit various applications. Flexible LED PCBs are ideal for products that require dynamic or complex designs, such as wearable electronics, flexible displays, and medical devices. Despite their lower thermal conductivity compared to rigid PCBs, flexible LED PCBs offer unique design advantages and are increasingly used in innovative LED applications.

    What are the Benefits of Using Aluminum LED PCB Boards?

    Aluminum LED PCB boards offer numerous advantages that other materials cannot achieved.

    1. Better Heat Management: LED PCBs, particularly aluminum ones, help in cooling LEDs, preventing overheating and extending their lifespan.

    2. Compact and Light: These boards are small and lightweight, making them perfect for applications with space and weight constraints.

    3. Dimensional stability: Aluminum LED PCB board has good dimensional stability compared with flexible LED PCBs. And it has low CTE during the manufacturing.

    4. Cost-Effective: Producing aluminum LED PCBs is relatively affordable, making them a budget friendly option for various applications.

    5. Versatile: Available in different shapes and sizes, Aluminum LED PCBs can be customized to meet specific needs, enhancing their usefulness in various scenarios.

    The Structures of a LED PCB Board in Manufacturing?

    A LED PCB is similar to traditional rigid board, the only one difference is the LED mounting on the pads. Herein, we listing the basic composition of a LED pcb board, let’s see it together.

    1. Substrate – The base of the PCB, which can be flexible (like polyimide), metal alloy (aluminum, copper), or ceramic, depending on the required thermal performance.

    2. Copper foil – A thin layer of copper is used for forming the circuit paths on the PCB.

    3. Solder mask – This is a protective layer covers the copper paths to prevent oxidation and short circuits. It also aids in SMT (surface mounted technology) soldering.

    4. Silkscreen – Used to print labels, logos, vendors, symbols, and pick and place on the PCB for easy identification during assembly.

    5. Adhesives – Aiming to bond different PCB layers, different material used different adhesive, always are prepreg (PP).

    6. LEDs: The main components mounted on the PCB, available in various sizes, colors, power ratings, voltages and so on.

    Your Reliable LED PCB Board Manufacturer – Best Technology

    Best Technology stands out as a leading manufacturer of high-quality LED PCB boards. We offer a wide range of products and services to cater to various needs. With extensive experience and expertise in the industry, we are committed to providing reliable and cost-effective solutions.

    • Advanced Facilities

    We are equipped with advanced machinery and technology, ensuring precision and efficiency in production.

    • Experienced Team

    Our skilled professionals are dedicated to delivering topnotch LED printed circuit boards. Most of our core members has more than 10 years-experience in the PCB manufacturing.

    • Quality Assurance

    We have passed ISO9001, ISO13485, IATF16949 certifications, and integrated them into our daily manufacturing process. These strict quality control measures can make sure every product meets the highest standards of industry.

    • Customization

    We offer tailored customized LED PCB board solutions to meet customer specific requirements.

    • Competitive Pricing

    Best Technology has our own factory in China and Vietnam, we can provide most affordable solutions without compromising on quality.

    Choosing Best Technology means opting for excellence, reliability, and superior service. Partner with us for your LED PCB needs and experience the difference we bring.

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    PCB Design for PICE Card, Industrial PCB Design Cases
    Tuesday, June 25th, 2024

    Best Technology has been a leader in PCB manufacturing and design for over 17 years. Our R&D team allows us to offer customers quick and valuable PCB design solutions. Here, we share one of our industrial motherboard design for PICE card for your reference.

    PICE card

    [1]: Main chip: XCKU11P

    [2]: 30A maximum current

    [3]: Single pair differential line, 10G optical network

    [4]: 14 layers PCB

    If you need a custom industrial PCB design, please feel free to contact us.

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    Video Decoder Hardware PCB Design Case Example
    Tuesday, June 25th, 2024

    A video decoder PCB design comprises several critical components that ensure efficient video signal processing. It includes the video decoder IC, memory modules (such as DDR RAM), power management units, and connectors for video input and output. You can see a video decoder pcb design example as following:

    Video decoder

    [1]: Xlinx: XC7K325T, Hisilicon: HI3521DV100_VI

    [2]: Single pair differential line, 10G optical network, memory of DDR4

    [3]: 12 layers PCB

    Why choose us?

    We are a China based fabricator with over 17 years experience, what we provide not only including PCB design service, but also PCB fabricating, PCB duplicating and component sourcing and so on. Choose Best Technology you can enjoy:

    • Professional engineer evaluation
    • DFM analysis
    • One-time successully on prototyping
    • SI analysis of signal integrity
    • Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis

    Contact us if you have any questions.

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    High Speed PCB Design Guidelines, PCB Camera Design Case
    Tuesday, June 25th, 2024

    When designing high-speed PCBs, several critical factors must be considered to ensure optimal performance. These include signal integrity, impedance control, and minimizing electromagnetic interference (EMI). Below is an ultra high speed camera PCB solution made by Best Technology:

    An ultra-high-speed camera rigid-flex circuit board

    [1]: XCKU060 chip

    [2]: 20A maximum current

    [3]: Four DDR4 channels

    [4]: 20 layers PCB

    High Speed PCB Design Guidelines, PCB Camera Design Case

    Camera PCB design considerations:

    1. When the Camera adopts a connector: when the MIPI differential signal passes through the connector, the adjacent differential signal pairs must be isolated using GND pins; If it is not convenient to punch holes, the spacing between the difference pairs is at least 15mil.

    2. If there is a reserved test point for the Camera connection seat, it should be close to the connection seat, and the Stub on the cable should be as short as possible.

    3. Decoupling capacitors of AVDD/DOVDD/DVDD power supply need to be placed as close as possible to the Camera connection base.

    4. The Camera layout needs to be far away from high-power radiation devices, such as GSM antennas.

    5. CIF/MIPI and other signals, if there is a board to board connection through the connector, it is recommended that all signals be connected with a certain resistance value (between 2.2ohm and 10ohm, depending on the SI test), and reserve TVS devices.

    Best Technology offers one-stop solutions for our values customers. And we provide free technical support for our customers. If you have similiar requirements, welcome to contact us at any time!

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    Differential Signal PCB Design, Fiber Optical SFP Module
    Tuesday, June 25th, 2024

    PCB design is one of an important process before the PCB manufacturing, it determines the overall performance of the whole product. We are an experienced PCB design and manufacturing vendor, with our professional technical team and advanced evaluated tools, we can make sure the PCB design one-time success. Today, we shared a example of fiber optical SFP modules design:

    32X100G(QSFP28) large capacity convergence shunt

    [1]: Marvell: 98CX8522

    [2]: Single pair differential line, 25G optical network

    [3]: 16 layers PCB

    How to design a SFP optical module PCB?

    SFP optical module interface PCB design depends on many aspects, including interface signal processing, timing control, power management and so on.

    1. Determine the interface standard: SFP optical module interface standards, such as SFP, SFP+, QSFP and so on, you need to choose the appropriate interface standard according to the specific needs.

    2. Choose the chip solution: According to the interface standard, choose the appropriate chip solution, usually including constant voltage source, amplifier, comparator, clock generator, EEPROM, etc.

    3. Signal processing: For receiving and sending signals, filtering, amplification and comparison are required to ensure signal quality and stability.

    4. Timing control: The timing and frequency of the clock signal need to be accurately controlled to ensure the correctness and stability of data transmission.

    5. Power management: SFP optical module interface requires multiple power supplies, including Vcc, VCC-TX, VCC-RX, etc. Reasonable power management is required to ensure the stability and reliability of the power supply.

    6. PCB design: According to the above requirements, PCB design is carried out, considering signal isolation, layering layout, status separation, signal integrity and other factors.

    Feel freely to send message us if you are interested in PCB design.

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    Motherboard Network Adapter PCB Design Solution Example
    Tuesday, June 25th, 2024

    A motherboard network adapter PCB comprises several key components, each playing a vital role in ensuring effective network connectivity. And between them, the PCB is the most important. Now, best technology is sharing an example about motherboard network PCB design.

    10G/100G large capacity convergence shunt

    [1]: Marvell: 98DX8548

    [2]: 21A maximum current

    [3]: Single pair differential line, 10G and 25G optical networks

    [4]: 10 layers PCB

    What are the considerations before PCB design?

    PCB design involves several steps and some considerations need to be noticed. If you are a designer, think about these points before starting the design.

    • Manufacturing: prototyping study or mass production.
    • What it will be used in?
    • What kind of production technology it will used?
    • Material?
    • How many layers you want?
    • Whether need to do impedance control?

    Best Technology has more than 17 years in this industry, we have served for over 1200 customer all around the world. Our goal is to provide customer with best solutions and top notch quality products, and it is luckily that we did a good job. If you want to work with us or need a PCB manufacturer in Asia, contact us right now!

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    High Speed PCB Design, Industrial PCB Case Sharing
    Tuesday, June 25th, 2024

    A high-speed circuit handles signals that switch quickly or operate at high frequencies, typically above 50 MHz, though some advanced systems may go into the GHz range. Best Technology is a one-stop PCB manufacturer that covers pcb design, pcb layout, pcb diagram, DFM, SI, PI analysis, PCB manufacturing and so on. In the following, you can see a high speed pcb design solution for industrial switch that we cooperated with our customer.

    32 x 400GE industrial switch

    [1]: Marvell-400G chip

    [2]: 200A maximum current

    [3]: Single pair differential line 56G optical network

    [4]: 24 layers high power PCB

    What’s the Best Material for High-Speed PCB Design?

    Choosing the right material is vital for maintaining signal integrity and achieving optimal performance. The material impacts the board’s dielectric constant (Dk), loss tangent, and overall signal quality. Common materials include:

    • FR4: Widely used but not ideal for very high frequencies due to higher loss tangent.
    • Rogers (RO4000 series): Preferred for high-speed designs thanks to its low dielectric constant and loss tangent.
    • Teflon: Excellent for high-frequency applications but more expensive and harder to process.

    Selecting the appropriate material ensures the PCB can handle high-speed signals without compromising performance.

    For the PCB design service, we can make sure the one-time success to save much time and money for customers. Our goal is to work with customers together and win more market with our clients. Just feel free to contact our technical team if you have similiar designs.

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