Archive for June, 2021

What is IPC standard for PCB?

Monday, June 28th, 2021

Do you know what is IPC standard for PCB?

IPC, it is a trade association whose goal is to standardize the assembly and production requirements of electronic devices and components.  It was established in 1957 as the Institute of Printed Circuits.  IPC has developed thousands of standards and specifications to regulate the electronics manufacturing industry

IPC standards are related to PCB design, production technology, electronic assembly, etc., in order to achieve high reliability, high quality, high performance, and meet user specifications.

For PCB manufacturing, do you know which IPC standards are commonly used?

multilayer pcb

Here I would like to share you some standards which we mainly use:

  1. 1. IPC-6011: General Performance Specification for Printed Boards
  2. 2. IPC-6012: Appraisal performance and specifications for Rigid printed boards
  3. 3. IPC-6013: Appraisal performance and specifications for Flexible printed boards
  4. 4. IPC-6016: Fixed performance and specification of HDI or printed circuit board of high density interconnection layer
  5. 5. IPC-SM-840: Appraisal and performance of permanent performance
  6. 6. IPC-HM-860: Multilayer Hybrid Circuit Specification
  7. 7. J-STD-003: Solderable test for printed boards
  8. 8. IPC-A-600F: Acceptance conditions for printed boards
  9. 9. IPC-A-61: Acceptability of electronic components
  10. IPC-4761: Design Guide for Protection of Printed Board Via Structures

One of the most widely used industry standards in the manufacturing of printed circuit boards is IPC-A-610—Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies. … IPC-A-600—Acceptability of Printed Boards. This standard is used primarily for the incoming inspection of bare boards from a PCB fabricator.

In the IPC-A-610C document, electronic products are divided into level 1, level 2, and level 3. The higher the level, the stricter the quality inspection conditions. Here are how 3 levels divided:

Level 1 products: called general-purpose electronic products. Including consumer electronic products, certain computers and their peripherals, and products whose main purpose is to use functions.

Level 2 products: called dedicated service electronic products. Including communication equipment, complex industrial and commercial equipment and high-performance, long-life measuring instruments. Under normal use environment, this kind of product should not malfunction.

Level 3 products: called high-performance electronic products. Including high-reliability, long-life military and civilian equipment that can continue to operate. This kind of product must not allow any interruption failure during use, and at the same time, it is necessary to ensure the reliable startup and operation of the equipment in a harsh environment. Such as medical life-saving equipment and all military equipment systems.

resin filled production bpm20599

It is no problem for us to manufacture the PCB following the standard in IPC 6012 /6013 Class 2 and Class 3, as well as following to the standard listed above/

These acceptance conditions are the basis for the inspection of our company’s products, as well as the working standards of the employees at the production site, and also become an important part of the training of the employees for PCB production and assembly in our company.

Send us your PCB drawing, let’s help to make your PCB design into a real board.

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The technology and application of DBC ceramic PCB

Thursday, June 17th, 2021

DBC means direct bonding copper, it is a ceramic surface metallization technology.

The copper is bonded on Alumina, Beryllium Oxide and Aluminum Nitride, Packaging applications for power electronic modules, semiconductor refrigeration and LED devices are widely used.

DBC-Ceramic-PCB

96% Al2O3 has good insulation, good chemical stability, high strength, and low price. It is the preferred material for DBC technology, but the thermal conductivity of aluminum oxide is low, and there is a certain thermal mismatch with the thermal expansion coefficient of Si.

BeO is a good ceramic material used in DBC technology. It has high low-temperature thermal conductivity. It can be used for medium and high power devices. In the application field and process, the toxicity caused by it should be properly protected.

AlN material is non-toxic, moderate dielectric constant, thermal conductivity is much higher than aluminum oxide, close to beryllium oxide, and thermal expansion coefficient close to SI. All kinds of chips and high-power devices can be directly attached to the AlN substrate. No transition layer of other materials is used. The prospects currently used in DBC technology are very promising.

There is no any layer between the metal and ceramic substrate, so the thermal diffusion ability is strong; the contact resistance is also low, which is conducive to the connection of high-power and high-frequency devices.     

The linking temperature is lower than the melting point of copper, and the DBC substrate maintains a stable geometric shape during the connection process. In some cases, the copper foil can be made into the required shape before the linking, and then the DBC preparation process is performed, eliminating the need After connecting the etching process.

The copper conductor part has a very high current-carrying capacity, so it has the ability to reduce the size of the intercepting medium and increase the power capacity.

If you want to know more about DBC ceramic PCB, please feel free to contact sales8@bestpcbs.com

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Common Problems in SinkPAD Board Design

Thursday, June 17th, 2021

1. What is the SinkPAD Board?

Sink Pad Board, also called Heat Sink or DTP (direct thermal path), it’s an alternative PCB technology to the conventional metal core PCB providing direct thermal path solutions for high power LED. 

The thermal conductive PAD is convexity area of copper core/pedestal, so that the thermal PAD of LED can touch the convexity area of metal core directly, and then the heat of LED will be dissipated into the air much faster and more efficient than conventional MCPCB.

Heat Sink

2. If only the LED pad can be made as SinkPAD?

Of course no, the pads of other chips or components also can be designed as Sink PAD, one of the most common is the IC pad. In some designs, IC needs to pass through the large current and it will emit a lot of heat, it would be best to design its pad as a thermal conductive pad at this time.

SinkPad Board after SMT

3. What is the thermal conductivity of a SinkPAD ?

The thermal conductivity could be 235 W/m.k to 400 W/m.k.

4. Can we use SinkPAD technology for any LED packages?

No, it’s designed to be used with the LEDs which has electrically neutral thermal pad. Such as Cree XPL/XML/XHP/XPG/XPE/XPC/XTE/XBD, Luxeon Rebel & Luxeon M from Philips Lumiled, Oslon SSL & Oslon square from Osram, Nichia N219, Seoul Semiconductor Z5P / Z5M, Samsung 3535, Bridgelux SM4, etc.

5. What is the Manufacturing Process for the SinkPAD Board?

Manufacturing process is the same as conventional MCPCB, please click here to see the manufacturing process status.

Shinkpad

6. How does SinkPAD Board compare to Conventional MCPCB?

Conventional MCPCB uses a thermally conductive dielectric layer to bond circuit layer with base metal (Aluminum or Copper) layer. The key to thermal performance of MCPCB lies in its dielectric layer. Even though thermally conductive dielectric has higher thermal performance compared to normal FR4, it’s still a weakest link in the conduction thermal path.

SinkPAD Board approach overcomes this limitation, which provides “Direct thermal path”, the LED Chip can directly contact the copper substrate, there’s no dielectric between LED thermal pads and the metal base, then the thermal resistance is very small.

7. Can the aluminum be made as the base of Heat Sink?

Actually yes, however, regarding of current technical conditions, since aluminum or aluminum alloy cannot directly react with acid, the reaction process is too complex and difficult to control, which will increase the difficulty of etching the LED pad platform.

Considering the scrap rate, the process of etching LED pad platform with aluminum is more complex and the overall cost is higher, and the copper also dissipates heat much better than aluminum, so copper is generally used as the substrate for Heat Sink in our company.

Copper Substrate

8. Does SinkPAD Board require special PCB design?

No, we can use your existing MCPCB Gerber data.

Welcome to contact us if you have other questions about Sink Pad Board. 

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What is flying probe test printed circuit boards?

Wednesday, June 16th, 2021

Before leaving PCB manufacturing line, bare PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards) have to pass electrical tests so that it guarantee that boards go for high performance and high reliability after finish the SMT(Surface Mount Technology). Electrical tests are implemented to find out electrical and circuitry issues such as shorts, opens, resistance, capacitance etc. all of which indicate whether bare boards or assembled board are correctly fabricated.

shorts circuit

When test probes work, it moves quickly from test points to other test points as per instructions instructed by the computer set up program.  

probe flying test

Probe test is no need fixture, so it is very popular in the printed circuit boards manufacturing. The most significant reason is their cost. it is highly cost-effective for prototypes and low to mid-volume production. And the most important factor, the test reports can be provided for each board after finish tested and it is very easy to export from the computer, you can send to your customer very quickly for the test results of PCB.

Advantages of Flying Probe Test:

Low test cost (Eliminates fixturing costs and time)

Short test development time

Fast computer program development, easy integration of design changes

Rapid feedback provided to PCB design engineers at prototyping period

Process flexibility

Circuit access, even in the absence of test points

Controlled probe contact, programmable for any type of board

Different test solutions and approaches integrated in a single test system

Intrinsic positioning and measurement precision

Disadvantages of Flying Probe Test

Everything has two sides. Apart from obvious advantages, flying probe test have some disadvantages.

Since flying probes have direct physical contact with vias and test pads and small pits are easily caused on board surface, when flying probe tester is working on components without test pad, it’s possible that probes have contact with component leads so that loose leads or leads with badly-performed soldering may be missed.

In spite of the disadvantages mentioned, flying probe test is still regarded as a significant test method for PCB fabrication. Flying Probes have enhanced the competitive variable as lost time due to retooling has been removed. Prototype and Quick Turn product is the perfect match for Flying Probes as they carry out in low quantity orders and are quick to change jobs, unlike the long setup times with fixture testers.

By the way, to test circuit shorts, opens, Best Technology also do AOI checking to make sure there is no issue for PCB manufacturing.

AOI test

Contact Best Technology right now, to discuss more for printed circuit boards.

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