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High Speed PCB Design Guidelines, PCB Camera Design Case
Tuesday, June 25th, 2024

When designing high-speed PCBs, several critical factors must be considered to ensure optimal performance. These include signal integrity, impedance control, and minimizing electromagnetic interference (EMI). Below is an ultra high speed camera PCB solution made by Best Technology:

An ultra-high-speed camera rigid-flex circuit board

[1]: XCKU060 chip

[2]: 20A maximum current

[3]: Four DDR4 channels

[4]: 20 layers PCB

High Speed PCB Design Guidelines, PCB Camera Design Case

Camera PCB design considerations:

1. When the Camera adopts a connector: when the MIPI differential signal passes through the connector, the adjacent differential signal pairs must be isolated using GND pins; If it is not convenient to punch holes, the spacing between the difference pairs is at least 15mil.

2. If there is a reserved test point for the Camera connection seat, it should be close to the connection seat, and the Stub on the cable should be as short as possible.

3. Decoupling capacitors of AVDD/DOVDD/DVDD power supply need to be placed as close as possible to the Camera connection base.

4. The Camera layout needs to be far away from high-power radiation devices, such as GSM antennas.

5. CIF/MIPI and other signals, if there is a board to board connection through the connector, it is recommended that all signals be connected with a certain resistance value (between 2.2ohm and 10ohm, depending on the SI test), and reserve TVS devices.

Best Technology offers one-stop solutions for our values customers. And we provide free technical support for our customers. If you have similiar requirements, welcome to contact us at any time!

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Differential Signal PCB Design, Fiber Optical SFP Module
Tuesday, June 25th, 2024

PCB design is one of an important process before the PCB manufacturing, it determines the overall performance of the whole product. We are an experienced PCB design and manufacturing vendor, with our professional technical team and advanced evaluated tools, we can make sure the PCB design one-time success. Today, we shared a example of fiber optical SFP modules design:

32X100G(QSFP28) large capacity convergence shunt

[1]: Marvell: 98CX8522

[2]: Single pair differential line, 25G optical network

[3]: 16 layers PCB

How to design a SFP optical module PCB?

SFP optical module interface PCB design depends on many aspects, including interface signal processing, timing control, power management and so on.

1. Determine the interface standard: SFP optical module interface standards, such as SFP, SFP+, QSFP and so on, you need to choose the appropriate interface standard according to the specific needs.

2. Choose the chip solution: According to the interface standard, choose the appropriate chip solution, usually including constant voltage source, amplifier, comparator, clock generator, EEPROM, etc.

3. Signal processing: For receiving and sending signals, filtering, amplification and comparison are required to ensure signal quality and stability.

4. Timing control: The timing and frequency of the clock signal need to be accurately controlled to ensure the correctness and stability of data transmission.

5. Power management: SFP optical module interface requires multiple power supplies, including Vcc, VCC-TX, VCC-RX, etc. Reasonable power management is required to ensure the stability and reliability of the power supply.

6. PCB design: According to the above requirements, PCB design is carried out, considering signal isolation, layering layout, status separation, signal integrity and other factors.

Feel freely to send message us if you are interested in PCB design.

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Motherboard Network Adapter PCB Design Solution Example
Tuesday, June 25th, 2024

A motherboard network adapter PCB comprises several key components, each playing a vital role in ensuring effective network connectivity. And between them, the PCB is the most important. Now, best technology is sharing an example about motherboard network PCB design.

10G/100G large capacity convergence shunt

[1]: Marvell: 98DX8548

[2]: 21A maximum current

[3]: Single pair differential line, 10G and 25G optical networks

[4]: 10 layers PCB

What are the considerations before PCB design?

PCB design involves several steps and some considerations need to be noticed. If you are a designer, think about these points before starting the design.

  • Manufacturing: prototyping study or mass production.
  • What it will be used in?
  • What kind of production technology it will used?
  • Material?
  • How many layers you want?
  • Whether need to do impedance control?

Best Technology has more than 17 years in this industry, we have served for over 1200 customer all around the world. Our goal is to provide customer with best solutions and top notch quality products, and it is luckily that we did a good job. If you want to work with us or need a PCB manufacturer in Asia, contact us right now!

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High Speed PCB Design, Industrial PCB Case Sharing
Tuesday, June 25th, 2024

A high-speed circuit handles signals that switch quickly or operate at high frequencies, typically above 50 MHz, though some advanced systems may go into the GHz range. Best Technology is a one-stop PCB manufacturer that covers pcb design, pcb layout, pcb diagram, DFM, SI, PI analysis, PCB manufacturing and so on. In the following, you can see a high speed pcb design solution for industrial switch that we cooperated with our customer.

32 x 400GE industrial switch

[1]: Marvell-400G chip

[2]: 200A maximum current

[3]: Single pair differential line 56G optical network

[4]: 24 layers high power PCB

What’s the Best Material for High-Speed PCB Design?

Choosing the right material is vital for maintaining signal integrity and achieving optimal performance. The material impacts the board’s dielectric constant (Dk), loss tangent, and overall signal quality. Common materials include:

  • FR4: Widely used but not ideal for very high frequencies due to higher loss tangent.
  • Rogers (RO4000 series): Preferred for high-speed designs thanks to its low dielectric constant and loss tangent.
  • Teflon: Excellent for high-frequency applications but more expensive and harder to process.

Selecting the appropriate material ensures the PCB can handle high-speed signals without compromising performance.

For the PCB design service, we can make sure the one-time success to save much time and money for customers. Our goal is to work with customers together and win more market with our clients. Just feel free to contact our technical team if you have similiar designs.

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Industrial Motherboard Design, Industrial PCB Case Sharing
Monday, June 24th, 2024

Best technology engaging in the PCB manufacturing and PCB design for more than 17 years. With a strong R&D team, we can provide customers with fast and valued PCB design solutions. Here is one of our industrial motherboard design & industrial PCB case sharing for your reference. If you want to get your own industrial PCB design, welcome to contact us.

A mITX architecture industrial control motherboard

[1] Intel Xeon E3, Core™ i7/i5, Celeron G3900E processors

[2]:2x DDR4 SODIMM 2133 MHz (up to 32 GByte)

[3]:4x SATA Gen 3.0

[4]:1x PCIe x16 (Gen 3)

[5]:2x USB 3.0 (Internal) + 1x USB 3.0 (Client) + 2x USB 3.0 (Rear I/O) + 2x USB 2.0 (Rear I/O) +

2x USB 2.0 (Front Header) + 1x USB 2.0 (mPCIe)

Industrial PCB Design Considerations

  • Control the length of the circuit: Minimize the length of the circuit, especially the key signal lines, to reduce signal attenuation and delay.
  • Avoid sharp angles and right angles: Right angles and sharp angles should be avoided when wiring, and rounded or 45 degree angles should be used as far as possible to reduce signal reflection and impedance discontinuity.
  • Line width: Determine the line width according to the current size and thermal requirements to ensure the reliability and stability of the circuit.
  • Inter-layer wiring: Rational use of multi-layer PCB inter-layer wiring, such as the signal line on the inner layer, power and ground wire on the outer layer.
  • Impedance control: For high-speed signals, it is necessary to control the line impedance to ensure signal integrity, and carry out impedance matching design if necessary.
  • Avoid cross and parallel wiring: Try to avoid cross and parallel wiring of signal lines to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic interference.

Contact us if you have any questions and inquiry about industrial PCB design projects.

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What is a Copper Clad Laminate (CCL) in PCB?
Tuesday, June 18th, 2024

Copper Clad Laminate as a base material of FR4 PCB, serving as a key part in the building of printed circuit board. Understanding what Copper Clad Laminate is, its benefits, types, and manufacturing process is essential for anyone who involved in the electronics industry. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of copper clad laminate material, and hope everyone in the PCB industry be interested in it.

copper clad laminate

What is copper clad laminate?

Copper Clad Laminate, short for CCL, is an electronic glass fiber cloth or other reinforcing material dipped in resin, one or both sides covered with copper foil and made of a plate-like material, referred to as copper clad plate. It also called “Core” when used in the multi-layer PCB designs. Through the different process like etch, drill or copper plating, we can generate different patterns, layouts onto the surface of the CCL, and then form a circuit board that we saw in the electronics.

CCLs provide the necessary support and electrical insulation in an electronic device, while also facilitating the pathways for electrical currents through the copper foil. So, in another word, the performance, long-term reliability and stability of the PCB depend on the CCL to a large extent.

copper clad laminate

What are the types of copper clad laminates?

Generally speaking, copper clad laminate can be divided into two main types according to its mechanical properties, they are – rigid copper clad laminate and flexible copper clad laminate. Here we listing the detailed types of CCL.

  • Rigid copper-clad laminate

a. According to different insulation materials and structures: organic resin clad copper laminate, metal clad copper laminate, ceramic clad copper laminate.

b. According to the thickness of the plate: conventional copper-covered laminate and thin copper-covered laminate. The thickness less than 0.5mm (doesn’t include the copper foil) is called thin CCL.

c. According to the reinforcement material used: electronic glass fiber cloth base copper foil board, paper base copper foil board and composite base copper foil board.

d. According to the insulating resin used, such as epoxy resin copper-coated foil board, polyester resin copper-coated foil board and cyanate resin copper-coated foil board.

e. Special rigid copper clad plate, according to the flame-retardant grade and some special properties.

  • Flexible copper clad laminate

a. polyester types (flame retardant and non-flame retardant)

b. polyimide type (flame retardant, non-flame retardant)

c. Extra thin electronic glass fiber cloth copper foil laminate

What’s the main composition of copper clad laminate?

A normal copper clad laminate mainly consists of copper foil and some auxiliary materials. These materials make the CCL conductive and be used as the core material of the circuit board. Here we would like to explain these compositions in details:

  • Copper foil

Copper foil is one of the main raw materials for manufacturing copper clad laminate, and it is a very pure metal material with excellent electrical conductivity. The thickness and purity requirements of the copper clad foil are very high, usually between 18-70μm, and the purity is more than 99.8%. In the manufacturing process of CCL, copper foil is used as a conductive layer to transfer current from one electronic component to another. It also has good plasticity and ductility, and can be bent, stretched and formed as needed without adversely affecting electrical conductivity. In addition, the corrosion resistance of the copper foil is also very good, which can resist the erosion of chemical substances, ensuring that the CCL can work properly in a variety of environments.

copper clad laminate
  • Auxiliary materials like resin and adhesive

In addition to copper foil and copper clad foil, the production of CCL also involves some other auxiliary materials, such as adhesives and reinforcing materials. Among them, the adhesive is mainly used to fix the copper foil and copper clad foil on the substrate. The selection of adhesives should take into account their adhesion and high temperature resistance to ensure that the copper foil and copper clad foil can be firmly bonded to the substrate. Reinforcement materials are mainly used to improve the mechanical strength and bending resistance of CCL. Common reinforcement materials include glass fiber cloth and polyimide film.

CCL Manufacturing Process

The manufacture of CCL is a meticulous process; therefore, it includes many accurate steps:

  • Prepare substrate – the commonly used substrate is fiberglass cloth impregnated with epoxy resin, which is non-conductive material and has good insolation and mechanical properties, then cured to get the correct mechanical and thermal characteristics.
  • Surface treatment – this is a surface cleaning and grinding process to achieve a clean and roughness surface of the substrate, resulting a good adhesion between the copper foil and substrate.
  • Copper Foil Lamination – lamination of copper foil onto the prepared substrate is done by temperature and pressure quickly and smoothly to obtain a stable bond. This is a lamination process of single layer CCL, if you want a multi-layer CCL, coating adhesive on each layer and then laminate in the press machine, then making them in a whole product.
  • Cutting and Trimming – the need for the dimensions drives the sheets to be cut and trimmed into a desired size.
  • Quality Checking: A thorough quality check follows to confirm that the CCL matches industry requirements on thickness, adhesion, and electrical properties.
copper clad laminate

Where is the Copper Clad Laminate uses?

CCL has a widely applications thus constituting a critical element for numerous electronic devices and systems, the typically are including:

  • Consumer electronics like cell phones, laptops, and tablets
  • Automotives including infotainment and engine control units
  • Industrial equipment like common test equipment
  • Telecommunications such as networking equipment and communication devices
  • Medical device, for example: imaging system, diagnostics

If you are looking for a company that can advance and improve your electronic circuit, then Best Technology is the right choice for you. Best Technology is a one-stop solution providers in China with extensive years of experience in high quality PCB and PCBA manufacturing. We have certificated by ISO9001, ISO13485, IATF16949 to make you no worry about the quality. Contact us right now to get your quotations!

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What Are the Advantages of Using Bus Bar PCB?
Friday, June 14th, 2024

In the design of electronic devices and systems, power distribution and heat dissipation management are key factors. Bus bar PCB, as an efficient solution, is particularly outstanding in these aspects. In this article, we would like to introduce the advantages of Bus bar PCB and its applications in different industries.

What Is A Bus Bar PCB?

At the beginning, we should know what a bus bar PCB is. The Bus bar PCB is a special and newest design that integrates the FR4 material and metal alloy into a whole product, which allows the current transfer path into the circuit board. Due to the current carry capacity and special shape, it also called busbar PCB, embedded bus bar PCB, extruded copper PCB, copper inlay PCB, copper extrusion PCB.

bus bar pcb

Bus bar circuit board provide a more compact and efficient means of current distribution than traditional wires and cables. This design improves the overall performance of the electronic system by reducing inductance, increasing current carrying capacity, and optimizing heat dissipation.

What Are the Advantages of Bus Bar PCB?

Bus bar PCB offers numerous benefits when be using the power supply applications, its main functions are:

1. Reduce the inductance

Bus bar PCBs reduce inductance by allowing current to flow between tightly spaced conductors. This layout reduces the loop area and thus the inductance value. This is particularly important for high-frequency and highspeed applications, as it reduces voltage spikes and noise, improving system stability and performance.

2. Enhanced current carrying capacity

Due to its large cross-sectional area and high-quality conductive materials, Bus bar PCB can efficiently carry large currents. This is particularly useful in applications that require a large amount of power distribution, such as power supplies, electric vehicles, and renewable energy systems. Bus bar PCBs support higher current density compared to conventional PCB wiring, which improves thermal management and reliability.

3. Improve thermal management

The Bus bar PCB effectively dissipates heat generated by key components. In high power applications, the buildup of heat can affect performance and life. The Bus bar PCB helps maintain optimal operating temperatures through efficient heat distribution, reducing the need for additional cooling mechanisms.

4. Save space and weight

The compact design of the Bus bar PCB reduces the overall size and weight of the electronic components. Its simple construction and elimination of multiple wire connectors contribute to space savings. This is particularly beneficial for applications where size and weight are critical, such as the aerospace and automotive industries.

5. Improved reliability and durability

Bus bar PCBS have superior mechanical strength and durability compared to traditional wiring systems. Its robust construction and secure connections reduce the risk of loose connections, failure due to vibration, and mechanical wear. This improves system reliability and service life for harsh environments and demanding applications.

6. Simplify assembly and maintenance

Using a Bus bar PCB simplifies the assembly process because it reduces the number of individual wires and connectors. This not only speeds up installation, but also reduces assembly errors. In addition, the Bus bar PCB provides a more orderly and accessible layout for easy troubleshooting and repair.

embeded bus bar pcb

7. Cost effective

Although there may be a high initial cost, Bus bar PCBs can provide cost savings in the long term. Its advantages in reduced inductance, improved thermal management and enhanced reliability reduce operating and maintenance costs. In addition, Bus bar PCB reduces the need for addons, such as heat sinks or complex wiring bundles, thereby increasing overall cost effectiveness.

What Applications of Bus Bar PCB?

Due the high current carry capacity of the bus bar PCB, makes it very suitable for power supply or power management devices. Bus bar PCB can perform well in such fields. Here are some common application examples that bus bar PCB can be used for. If you are seeking for a PCB to integrate into your power supply project, then bus bar PCB is the go-to-choice.

1. Power Electronics

In power converters, inverters and high-current power supplies, Bus bar PCBS are widely used because of their ability to efficiently handle high currents and excellent thermal performance.

2. The Automobile industry

Another popular field that bus bar PCB used in is automotives, especially in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In the electric cars, it can be used for battery connectivity and power distribution, contributing to weight reduction and performance improvements.

3. Renewable energy

Bus bar PCB is an environment friendly material, it is often used in solar systems, wind turbines and energy storage solutions to manage high currents and enhance reliability.

4. Industrial equipment

In industrial machinery and equipment, Busbar PCB provides powerful and efficient power distribution for motors, drives and control systems.

aluminum bus bar pcb

5. Aerospace

Bus bar PCBS are used in aerospace applications, such as avionics and power distribution systems, where size, weight and reliability are key factors.

Final Words

All in all, bus bar PCB offers significant advantages in handling high currents, improving thermal management, and providing reliable power distribution across various applications. By integrating bus bar PCBs, industries can achieve better power management, reduced system size and weight, and improved overall reliability.

Best Technology is a one-stop PCB solution provider in Asia, we offer various kinds of PCBs not only include bus bar PCB, but also Extra thin PCB, RF PCB, HDI PCB, Heavy copper PCB, Ceramic PCB, Metal Core PCB, Flex PCB and rigid flex PCB, PCBA and so more. We have more than 17 years-experience in PCB design and manufacturing, and served more than 1200 customers. Choosing Best Technology as your supplier ensures you get high quality PCBs, helping to improve the performance and competitiveness of your products. Contact us right now to customize your own PCB!

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How to Distinguish Hard Gold and Soft Gold Plating on PCB?
Friday, June 14th, 2024

Gold plating is a common surface finish in PCB manufacturing, also known as nickel gold electroplating. It provides excellent conductivity, corrosion resistance and good durability to electronic devices. However, not all gold plating is created equal. There are two primary types of gold plating are used in PCB fabricating: hard gold plating and soft gold plating. They differ in properties, manufacturing process and applications, let’s explore it today!

How to Distinguish Hard Gold and Soft Gold Plating on PCB?

What are Hard Gold Plating and Soft Gold Plating?

In the manufacturing process of printed circuit boards (PCBs), we often hear the words “soft gold” and “hard gold”. They are actually describing the different metal materials used in the gold-plating process.

Hard gold usually refers to an alloy formed by electroplating process. This alloy is doped with other metal elements, such as nickel, cobalt, etc., to make it harder and more resistant to friction. Hard gold is especially suitable for places that require force and friction, such as the edge contact points of circuit boards (commonly known as “gold fingers”), because it can withstand frequent insertion and removal operations. Although the processing process of hard gold is complex, it can be doped with other metals to improve the hardness of gold, making it more suitable for making hollow jewelry or for industrial applications.

How to Distinguish Hard Gold and Soft Gold Plating on PCB?

Soft gold refers to the state of pure gold or close to pure gold, because of the high purity of gold, it is relatively soft. Soft gold is mainly used for aluminum wire on COB (Chip On Board), or the contact surface of mobile phone keys, because it can maintain good electrical conductivity and weldability. The processing process of soft gold is relatively simple, does not require complex alloying process, and maintains the soft characteristics of gold, which is suitable for the production of solid jewelry or for applications requiring good electrical conductivity.

How to Distinguish Hard Gold and Soft Gold Plating on PCB?

Properties and applications: hard gold plating vs soft gold plating

Hard gold plating is known for its high hardness, typically achieved by alloying gold with small amounts of nickel or cobalt. So, it has highly resistant to wear and mechanical stress. The thickness of hard gold plating is usually greater than that of soft gold plating, ranging from 30 to 50u’’ or more. Best Technology can make up to 50u’’ if you required. Due to the hardness of the hard gold plating, they are commonly used in edge connectors, keypads, and contact points where repeated mechanical action occurs.

The manufacturing process of soft gold plating involves a chemical process to deposit a thinner layer of pure gold onto the PCB surface. The coated pure gold without any alloying elements, resulting in a softer finished compared to the hard gold plating. Additionally, the thickness of soft gold plating is typically thinner than that of hard gold plating, usually around 1 to 3u’’. Due to the softness and conductivity properties, the soft gold plating technology is often used in applications requiring high conductivity and precision, such as wire bonding and fine-pitch components in high-frequency and high-speed circuits.

What’s the difference between gold plating and immersion gold?

Actually, Immersion Gold is mostly called ENIG (electroless nickel immersion gold) surface treatment method. The advantage of this method is that nickel and gold can be attached to copper without electroplating process, and its surface is smoother than gold plating, which is especially important for the shrinking electronic parts and components requiring flatness.

The method of leaching gold is chemical deposition. A coating is formed by chemical redox reaction, which is generally thick. Electroplating gold is based on the principle of electrolysis, also known as electroplating. Most other metal surface treatments are electroplating. In actual product applications, 90% of the gold PCB board is dipped in gold, because the poor weldability of the electric gold-plated board is its fatal defect.

How to Distinguish Hard Gold and Soft Gold Plating on PCB?

Nickel gold coating with stable color, good brightness, smooth coating and good weldability can be deposited on the surface of printed circuit by gold leaching process. It can be divided into four stages: pretreatment (degreasing, micro-etching, activation, post-leaching), nickel plating, gold leaching, post-treatment (waste gold washing, DI washing, drying). The thickness of gold leaching is 0.025-0.1um. Gold is used in the surface treatment of the circuit board because gold has strong electrical conductivity, good oxidation resistance and long service life. General applications such as keyboard board, gold finger board, etc.

Choosing between hard gold plating and soft gold plating for your PCB depends on your specific application requirements. At Best Technology, we offer expert guidance and high-quality PCB manufacturing services to help you select the best surface finish for your needs. Choose us as your trusted PCB supplier to ensure reliable and efficient solutions for all your electronic projects.

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Why is FR4 Material the Most Commonly Used PCB Material?
Wednesday, June 5th, 2024

FR4 material is a highly popular and widely used substrate in the PCB industry due to its exceptional mechanical strength, electrical insulation, and flame retardant properties. It has become the standard for PCB fabrication.

What is FR4 Material and Why is it Used in PCBs?

FR4 is a type of fiberglass-reinforced epoxy laminate. The term “FR4” comes from its flame-retardant properties, meeting the UL94V-0 standard. It is made from woven fiberglass cloth and epoxy resin, which together provide great strength and durability.

Electrical engineers and designers prefer FR4 because of its many benefits, such as:

  • Low cost
  • High dielectric strength
  • Excellent strength-to-weight ratio
  • Moisture resistance
  • Temperature endurance
  • Good electric loss characteristics
  • Flame retardance and self-extinguishing capabilities
  • Mechanical robustness
  • Insulating properties

FR4 is also suitable for marine PCBs because it absorbs very little water. In a standard FR4 PCB, a layer of FR4 is placed between two thin layers of laminated copper.

FR4 material pcb

What are the Key Performances of FR4 Material?

FR4 material, also recognized as flame retardant 4, is a composite of glass fabric and epoxy resin, predominantly utilized as a foundational material for printed circuit boards. Familiarity with the specifications of FR4 is crucial for selecting the appropriate substrate for PCB manufacturing. Key specifications include:

1. The thickness of FR4 sheet is usually 0.2 mm to 3.2 mm, and other special thickness also available.

2. The specific gravity of FR4 material is about 1.85g/cm3, which means that it is heavier than water.

3. Coefficient of thermal expansion of FR4 is about 1.0×10^-5cm/cm/℃, which means that its length or width will expand slightly when the temperature changes.

4. The thermal decomposition temperature of FR4 materials is usually between 280C and 320C, which makes it able to withstand high temperature applications.

5. FR4 material has a dielectric constant around 4.0-4.8, which makes it an ideal material for circuit board manufacturing.

6. FR4 has good arc resistance, which means that in the case of high voltage, it can effectively prevent arc discharge.

7. FR4 material good hydrolysis resistance and can maintain good performance even in a humid environment.

RF FR4 PCB

What are the Types of PCB Materials in the Industry?

PCB materials can be broadly categorized based on their composition and intended application. Nowadays, the commonly used are including FR4, polyimide (PI), Metal material (copper or aluminum), ceramic substrate like Al2O3, AlN, Si3N4, and so on. Different materials have its unique functions and well-suited in specific environment. Here we introduce their properties and suited applications simply.

FR4 (Fiberglass Epoxy Laminate)

At present, almost of PCB you seen in the market or electronics used the FR4 material. It widely used because of its superb equilibrium of mechanical strength, electrical insulation, and cost-efficiency. Actually, according to the different reinforcement materials, the circuit board is mainly classified into the following types:

1) FR-4

2) FR-1, FR-2, etc.

3) CEM series: Composite substrate

FR-4 used frequently because of its high fire resistance rating.

High Tg FR4

Though normal FR4 material has good electrical insulation, it is not an ideal option for high frequency circuit board. And then, high Tg FR4 stands out by using an advanced technology. “Tg” refers to glass transition temperature, the juncture at which the material transitions from a rigid, glassy state to a pliable, rubbery state. High Tg FR4 boasts a Tg of 170°C or higher.

Polyimide (PI)

Polyimide materials are renowned for their excellent flexibility, superior thermal stability and chemical resistance. It is always used as raw material of flex circuits, rigid flex circuit boards or membrane switches. Due to the good chemistry properties, they can endure temperatures up to 260°C and are highly flexible, making them ideal for those small and limited PCB designs.

polyimide pcb

Metal base material

Metal materials always used in metal core PCBs (MCPCB), usually used aluminum core or copper core. The metal base has great thermal conductivity to enhance the thermal management of the device, buy using metal core, the device can dissipate heat away from the critical component such as LED chips, ICs, BGAs, to remain the reliability and performance of the PCB.

metal core pcb

Ceramic substrate

Ceramic PCB substrate offers excellent thermal conductivity and stability than that metal core PCBs, making them suitable for high-power and high-frequency applications. But due to the high cost and complex manufacturing, the ceramic PCB is much expensive than metal core PCB, therefore, they are always be used in high-end applications, such as the military, defense, aerospace and some special fields where requires excellent thermal management.

ceramic pcb

Understanding these materials enable to help engineers and designers in selecting the most appropriate substrate for their projects, ensuring optimal performance and cost-efficiency. Best Technology provides a comprehensive array of PCB materials, guaranteeing high-quality solutions for all your electronic needs.

What are the Applications of FR4 PCB Material in Various Industries?

FR4 material is versatile and finds applications in numerous industries, including:

  • Consumer Electronics like smartphones, laptops, and other personal electronic devices.
  • Applied in vehicle electronics for infotainment systems, engine control units, and more.
  • Industrial Equipment such as control systems, power supplies, and industrial automation.
  • Essential for telecommunications, network devices, routers, and communication infrastructure.
  • Medical instrumentation and diagnostic equipment.
  • Aerospace and defense in avionics, radar systems, and defense electronics.

This is all of this sharing, thanks for your reading. Welcome to contact us if you have other questions about FR4 or other raw materials of PCB. Best Technology engaging in the PCB manufacturing about 18 years, we are one of the leading PCB manufacturers in China. And we have such confidence to provide with you the best PCB and PCBA fast solution for your projects.

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What are HDI PCBs and Their Basic Parameters?
Wednesday, June 5th, 2024

High-Density Interconnect (HDI) PCBs are revolutionizing the electronics industry with their advanced capabilities and compact designs. As technology continues to evolve, the demand for smaller, faster, and more efficient electronic devices has led to the widespread adoption of HDI PCBs.

What is Definition of HDI PCB?

HDI board refers to High Density Interconnect, that is, high density interconnect board, which is a relatively new technology developed by the PCB industry at the end of the 20th century.

The drilling of the traditional PCB board is affected by the drilling tool, and when the drilling aperture reaches 0.15mm, the cost is already very high, and it is difficult to improve again. The drilling of HDI board no longer relies on traditional mechanical drilling, but uses laser drilling technology. (This is why it is sometimes called a laser plate.) The hole diameter of the HDI board is generally 3-5mil (0.076-0.127mm), the line width is generally 3-4mil(0.076-0.10mm), the size of the pad can be greatly reduced, so more line distribution can be obtained within the unit area, and the high-density interconnection comes from this.

Smaller device spacing, more I/O pins and embedded passive devices Larger ASiCs and FPGAs with increasingly shorter rise times and higher frequencies all require smaller PCB feature sizes, which is driving a strong demand for HDI/ micro through-holes. The typical high density interconnector designs are including:

  • 1+N+1
  • 2+N+2
  • 3+N+3
  • 4+N+4
HDI PCB

What are the benefits of HDI PCB?

HDI is a compact circuit board designed for small volume users. Compared with ordinary FR4 PCB, the most significant feature of HDI is the high wiring density, and the difference between the two is mainly reflected in the following three aspects.

1. HDI is smaller and lighter

HDI board is a traditional dual panel as the core board, through continuous stacking layer by layer. This kind of circuit board made by continuous layering is also called Build-up Multilayer (BUM). Compared with traditional circuit boards, HDI circuit boards have the advantages of “light, thin, short and small”.

The electrical interconnection between the HDI board is realized through the conductive through hole, buried hole and blind hole connection, its structure is different from the common multi-layer circuit board, and a large number of micro-buried blind holes are used in HDI board. HDI uses direct laser drilling, while standard PCBS usually use mechanical drilling, so the number of layers and aspect ratio tend to be reduced.

The high density of HDI board is mainly reflected in the hole, line, pad density, and layer thickness.

● Micro-via hole

The HDI board contains the design of micro-pilot holes such as blind holes, which is mainly reflected in the micro-hole formation technology with a diameter less than 150um, and the high requirements of cost, production efficiency and hole position precision control. In the traditional multilayer circuit board, there are only through holes and no tiny buried blind holes.

● Fine line width and line distance

Its main performance in the wire defects and wire surface roughness requirements are more and more stringent. Generally, the line width and line distance do not exceed 76.2um.

● High pad density

The density of welded contacts is greater than 50 per square centimeter.

● Thinning of medium thickness

It is mainly manifested in the trend of the thickness of the interlayer medium to 80um and below, and the thickness uniformity requirements are becoming more and more stringent, especially for high-density plates and packaging substrates with characteristic impedance control.

2. Better electrical performance

    HDI not only enables end-product designs to be miniaturized, but also to meet higher standards of electronic performance and efficiency at the same time.

    The increased interconnect density of HDI allows for increased signal strength and improved reliability. In addition, the HDI board has better improvement for RF interference, electromagnetic wave interference, electrostatic discharge, heat conduction and so on. HDI also uses full digital signal process control (DSP) technology and a number of patented technologies, with a full range of load adaptability and strong short-term overload capability.

    3. The HDI board has very high requirements for buried holes

    It can be seen from the above that whether it is the volume of the board, or the electrical performance, HDI is better than ordinary PCB. Where the coin has two sides, the other side of HDI is as a high-end PCB manufacturing, its manufacturing threshold and process difficulty are much higher than ordinary PCB, and there are more problems to pay attention to when producing – especially the buried hole jack.

    What are the basic parameters of HDI PCB?

    HDI PCB has greater different with normal FR4 PCB, from the stack up, material selection, manufacturing and cost. So, it is vital to understanding the basic parameters of a high-density interconnect board before start your designing trip. The standard parameters of HDI board mainly include the following aspects:

    1. Numbers of layers

    Generally, the number of layers of HDI board is 4-20 layers, and the high-end HDI board can reach to 40-50 layers.

    • Line width/spacing

    Due to the HDI PCB are always used in high-end applications, their line width and spacing are usually very strict, and the common requirement is that the line width/spacing is 4/4mil (0.1mm), or even smaller.

    • Blind hole, buried hole, bus

    These are one of the characteristics of the HDI board, blind hole and buried hole can reduce the area of the circuit board, make your design more density, and the bus enable to improve the signal transmission rate of the PCB.

    • Board thickness

    The board thickness of HDI board is usually range from 0.8 to 3.2mm, of which 1.6mm is the most common thickness.

    • Pad

    The pad on the HDI board is generally very small, and the common pad size is 0.2mm to 0.5mm. Different factory has different capabilities, it is best to ask your supplier or manufacturer to get a manufacturing capability document.

    • Impedance control

    For high-speed signal transmission circuits, the impedance control of the HDI board is very important, and the requirements are very strict. It is needed to tell your vendor if your HDI board will be used in high-speed devices.

    • Material

    The main materials of HDI board are FR4, BT, PI, PET, etc. Different materials can meet different requirements.

    This is the end of this sharing, contact us today to learn more about our HDI PCB solutions and how we can help you achieve your technological goals. In our next chapter, we will introduce the manufacturing process and methods of HDI boards, let me know if you are interested in it.

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